Define and describe stressors and the methods of appraisal of

Define and describe stressors and the methods of appraisal of stressors. 
Stressors are stressful events and can be a major life event or stressful events as a result of daily life (Taylor, 2017). Stress occurs as a result of one’s evaluation or appraisal of the stressor. There are two methods of appraisal: primary and secondary. Primary appraisal happens as a person is trying to determine what the event is and the meaning that it has, which can be that the situation can be identified to intend harm, a threat or a challenge (Taylor, 2017). Secondary appraisal is when the person determines whether their personal resources are sufficient to meet the demands of the environment created by the stressor (Taylor, 2017).

Explain how the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis are implicated in the physiological response to stress.
Both the sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SAM) hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis are involved in the body’s physiological stress response. With the SAM system, stressful events lead to arousal of the sympathetic nervous system and thus stimulates the medulla of the adrenal glands (Taylor, 2017). The medulla then secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine which result in physiological symptoms like increased heart rate and sweating (Taylor, 2017). With the HPA axis, stress causes the hypothalamus to release corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH). This action results in the pituitary gland stimulated to secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which causes the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids such as cortisol (Taylor, 2017).


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